The Geneva Accords of 1954 were a set of agreements that aimed to end the First Indochina War and establish peace in Vietnam. The accords were signed on July 21, 1954, in Geneva, Switzerland, by representatives of France, the Viet Minh, the People`s Republic of China, the Soviet Union, Cambodia, and Laos.
The agreements proposed a temporary division of Vietnam at the 17th parallel, with the northern part of the country under the control of the communist Viet Minh and the southern part under the control of the non-communist regime. The temporary division was to last for two years until nationwide elections could be held to reunify the country under a single government.
The Geneva Accords also proposed the withdrawal of all foreign military forces from Vietnam, including the French army, which had been fighting the Viet Minh for eight years. The accords established an International Control Commission (ICC) to oversee the implementation of the agreements and monitor the ceasefire.
The accords also outlined the rights and protections of Vietnamese citizens, including freedom of movement, speech, and assembly. The agreements recognized the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Vietnam and its neighboring countries, including Cambodia, Laos, and China.
However, the Geneva Accords were not fully implemented, and the temporary division of Vietnam became permanent. The elections scheduled for 1956 were never held, and the two parts of Vietnam became two separate countries, with the communist-led Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the north and the anti-communist Republic of Vietnam in the south. The division eventually led to the Second Indochina War, commonly known as the Vietnam War, which lasted from 1955 to 1975.
In conclusion, the Geneva Accords of 1954 aimed to end the First Indochina War and establish peace in Vietnam through a temporary division of the country and nationwide elections. The agreements also proposed the withdrawal of foreign military forces and established the rights and protections of Vietnamese citizens. However, the accords were not fully implemented, and the division of Vietnam became permanent, leading to the Second Indochina War.